Scandium: Its Occurrence, Chemistry, Physics, Metallurgy, by C. T. Horovitz

By C. T. Horovitz

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1970). J. Geophys. Res. 75, 2939-2945. Breger, I. A. and Schopf, E. (1965). Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 7, 287-293. Brewer, P. , Spencer, D. W. and Robertson, D. E. (1972). Earth Planet. Sei. Lett. 16,111-116. Brown, G. M. (1971). Endeavour 30, 147-151. Brown, H. R. and Swaine, D. J. (1964). J. Inst. Fuel. 37, 422-440. Brown, P. M. (1958). Econ. Geol. 53, 85-101. Burbidge, E. M. and Burbidge, G. R. (1951). Astrophys. J. 113, 703. Burbidge, E. M. and Burbidge, G. R. (1956). Astrophys. J. 124, 116-129.

Various elements, including scandium, concentrates during the decay of vegetable matter, especially in humus soils. Menkovskii et al. (1968) found that most of the scandium in coal is bound with humic acids, whereas no scandium was detected in coal bituminous. In considering the fairly high concentration of scandium in the vitrains (enrichment factors relative to the earth's crust or sedimentary rocks that varied from about 1-5-10), which contain only traces of clay and other minerals present in the bulk coal, Swaine (1964) suggested that part of the scandium in the coal is organically bound.

Geochim. i Kristallokhim Redkikh Elementov 7, 65-70. Borisenko, L. F. (1963). "Scandium: its Geochemistry and Mineralogy,,, Eng. transl. Consultants Bureau, New York. , Havlena, V. and Sulcek, Z. (1963). Rozp. Cesk. Akad. Ved. Rada Mat. Prirod. Ved. 73, 3-78. , Havlena, V. and Tacl, A. (1964). Casopis Mineral. Geol. 9, 57-67. Bowen, H. J. M. (1966). "Trace Elements in Biochemistry,,, Academic Press, London. Bowman, H. , Asaro, F. and Perlman, I. (1973). J. Geology 81, 312-327. 2 . DISTRIBUTION IN NATURE 43 Brar, S.

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