By Julian E. Andrews, Peter Brimblecombe, Tim D. Jickells, Peter S. Liss, Brian Reid
This introductory textual content explains the basics of the chemistry of the common surroundings and the consequences of mankind's actions at the earth's chemical platforms. keeps an emphasis on describing how average geochemical methods function over quite a few scales in time and area, and the way the results of human perturbation should be measured. themes variety from regular international matters corresponding to atmospheric pollutants and its influence on international warming and ozone destruction, to microbiological techniques that reason toxins of ingesting water deltas. includes sections and data bins that designate the fundamental chemistry underpinning the topic coated. each one bankruptcy includes a record of extra studying at the topic region. up-to-date case stories. No earlier chemistry wisdom required. appropriate for introductory point classes.
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Additional info for An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry
Each functional group confers speciﬁc properties on the compound, and can be a major factor in determining the chemical behaviour of the compound. Functional groups include the hydroxyl (–OH), carboxyl (–COOH), amino (–NH2) and nitro groups (–NO2). 1 Important functional groups in environmental chemistry. Modifed from Killops and Killops (1993). Reproduced with kind permission of the authors. 11). 14), increasing its aqueous solubility. 5). Some molecules contain more than one functional group, for example the amino acids contain both –COOH and –NH2: H H amino group N H C H OH C O carboxyl group Amino acids also behave as weak acids due to the –COOH group, so they can release H+ ions by dissociation, for example in the simple amino acid glycine: NH2CH 2COOH Æ H + + NH2CH2COO glycine eqn.
It did so by evolving new biogeochemical metabolisms, those that today support the diversity of life on Earth. 1). In addition, oxygen in the stratosphere (see Chapter 3) underwent photochemical reactions, leading to the formation of ozone (O3), protecting the Earth from ultraviolet radiation. This shield allowed higher organisms to colonize the continental land surfaces. In recent decades a few scientists have argued that the Earth acts like a single living entity rather than a randomly driven geochemical system.
In fact the reverse is true. Paradoxically, it is often the elements present in trace amounts in the solids and ﬂuids of the environment that tell us most about chemical processes. 3 Bonding Many elements do not normally exist as atoms, but are bonded together to form molecules. The major components of air, nitrogen and oxygen for example, are present in the lower atmosphere as the molecules N2 and O2. 2) it is found uncombined as single argon atoms. Inert elements are exceptions and most substances in the environment are in the form of molecules.