Aging, Immunity, and Infection (Infectious Disease) by Joseph F. Albright

By Joseph F. Albright

Favorite immunogerontologists evaluation the foremost gains and features of the immune process which are probably, or recognized, to be considerably altered by means of getting older, and provide insightful analyses of the results for these getting older matters who needs to take care of an infection. themes of exact curiosity comprise the demographics and theories of immunosenescence, the sluggish breakdown of resistance to an infection within the elderly, and the results of getting older on chosen mechanisms of either innate and adaptive immunity to infections. The Albrights additionally clarify how advances should be made in realizing the elemental biology, the more recent equipment of therapy and prevention, and the assessment of such provocative principles as lifespan extension and dietary intervention to hold up immunosenescence.

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In the case of P. aeruginosa, the principal glycocalyx material is the polysaccharide, alginate. At this point, the bacteria embedded in the glycocalyx are protected from antibodies, cell-mediated immunity, and antibiotics. Antigens are released by bacteria in the biofilm as well as planktonic forms and high levels of immunity may prevail in the host, but to no avail. As noted in the preceding paragraph, when bacteria in the developing colony reach a certain number (density) activation of a new set of genes occurs.

There are functional changes that occur in the GI system with age, beginning with the fact that gastric acid secretion diminishes resulting in an increase in pH in the proximal small intestine and the potential for bacterial overgrowth. In addition, normal intestinal motility may not be maintained, a factor that also disposes to bacterial overgrowth. The latter condition can cause histological changes in the mucosa of the small bowel such as hypertrophy of villi and crypts, vesiculation of the cytoplasm of mucosal cells, swollen mitochondria, and dilated cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum (12–14).

First and perhaps foremost, biofilms render many pathogens safe from antibiotics and immune attack. Second, it is likely that biofilm formation by various bacteria that are nonpathogenic in healthy, young adults may lead to serious infections in immunocompromised elderly or those already afflicted with some disorder. Third, the widespread use of urinary catheters, the high prevalence of prostatic disease among elderly males, and the frequency of bone and joint repair and replacement in the elderly offer to microbial pathogens a range of opportunities for clinical biofilm formation.

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