Aerothermodynamik German by Oertel, Herbert

By Oertel, Herbert

Dieses Buch wendet sich an Studenten der Ingenieurwissenschaften und Ingenieure der Raumfahrtindustrie und der Energieverfahrenstechnik. Es verkn?pft die klassischen Gebiete der Aerodynamik mit der Nichtgleichgewichts-Thermodynamik hei?er Gase. Am Beispiel des Wiedereintritts einer Raumkapsel in die Erdatmosph?re werden die aerothermodynamischen Grundlagen und numerischen Methoden zur Berechnung des Str?mungsfeldes der Raumkapsel im gaskinetischen und kontinuumsmechanischen Bereich der Wiedereintrittstrajektorie behandelt. Am Beispiel von Raumfahrtprojekten werden die Methoden entwickelt. Die Autoren sind anerkannte Spezialisten f?r dieses Fachgebiet.

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NOTE: Since chemical potential as an intensive quantity depends only on the composition of the system, not the size of it, we can replace constant Ni with constant xi . 2 Free energy. Free for what? 2 Free energy. Free for what? The free energies ϕ are also called thermodynamic potentials: the potential has a minimum in the equilibrium. Now we start to see that it is probably a free energy barrier that the system tries to overcome in phase transitions, but gets trapped to the “wrong” side of the mountain as in Fig.

I We solve the heat d-Q entering the system from the first law d-Q = dU + d-W − µi dNi and use the conservation laws above to express the changes in the system properties in terms of the changes in the bath properties d-Q = dU − d-W0 + µi,0 dNi,0 . Then we use reversible forms for the changes in bath properties 44 3 Formation free energy d-Q = dU − P0 dV + µi,0 dNi,0 and the conservation laws again to return to the system properties d-Q = dU + P0 dV − µi,0 dNi . When we substitute this to the second law (eq.

Relative humidity is defined as RH = Sw × 100%, and relative acidity as RA = Sa × 100%. Saturation means RH = 100% ⇔ Sw = 1 and water has equilibrium vapour pressure. g. drying the laundry), or saturation is reached, and S = 1 (drying laundry in a poorly ventilated bathroom). If S > 1, vapour condenses if it is possible. This requires • liquid pool present • other surfaces to condense on available (macroscopic, like glasses or windows or microscopic, like small dust particles) otherwise the excess molecules are trapped in the vapour which tries to nucleate.

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