By Charles E. Taylor, Jonathan T. Kwan
This ebook had its genesis in a symposium on fuel hydrates awarded on the 2003 Spring nationwide assembly of the yank Institute of Chemical Engineers. The symposium consisted of twenty papers provided in 4 classes over days. extra visitor authors have been invited to supply continuity and canopy subject matters no longer addressed throughout the symposium. gasoline hydrates are a different classification of chemical substances the place molecules of 1 compound (the visitor fabric) are enclosed, with out bonding chemically, inside an open good lattice composed of one other compound (the host material). a lot of these configurations are often called clathrates. The visitor molecules, u- best friend gases, are of a suitable measurement such that they healthy in the cage shaped through the host fabric. Commonexamples of fuel hydrates are carbon dioxide/water and methane/water clathrates. At average strain and temperature, methane hydrate comprises via quantity a hundred and eighty occasions as a lot methane as hydrate. the USA Geological Survey (USGS) has expected that there's extra natural carbon c- tained as methane hydrate than all other kinds of fossil fuels mixed. in reality, methane hydrates may supply a fresh resource of strength for a number of centuries. Clathrate compounds have been first chanced on within the early 1800s whilst Humphrey Davy and Michael Faraday have been experimenting with chlorine-water combinations.
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Extra resources for Advances in the Study of Gas Hydrates
Recently a generalization of the vdW-P model for multiple filling of cages, starting from the canonical ensemble for guests, and results of extensive calculations were presented . 2. SIMPLE CHEMICAL KINETIC MODEL As a starting point for subsequent comparison with the STD model we derive simple chemical kinetic model of cage filling analogous to models of localized adsorption. Considering filling of a cage by m guest molecules as a m-stage chemical reaction one can write equations of chemical equilibrium as where is the fraction of cages containing k guest molecules (k = 0, 1,…,m), p—gas pressure of the guest, —the equilibrium (Langmuir’s) constants for the reaction of inclusion of one guest molecule into the cage containing k–1 guest molecules.
A well is located in the center of the reservoir that has a radius of 200 m, and is producing gas at a constant bottomhole pressure (BHP) of 4000 kPa from the free gas zone. The permeability of the rock is 20 md, and the relative permeability and capillary pressure functions are depicted in Figure 5 and 6, respectively. The saturation of the phases in the reservoir and the other Figure 4. Initial pressure, temperature and saturation in the reservoir. Effect of Conductive and Convective Heat Flow 49 Figure 5.
0370 for run 3). The differences in the total amount of gas consumed are caused by the different mixing speeds. In the case of the static conditions the concentration of gas in the liquid is not homogenous and the highest concentration will be located at the gas-liquid interface reducing the mass transfer driving force, and lowering the gas to liquid mass-transfer rate. Therefore, the 40 M. Carolina Gonzalez Chacin et al. static system takes longer to achieve the gas concentration in the water necessary for hydrate formation.