By Sandra A. Thompson
Wappo is an indigenous language, in most cases considered as a language isolate, which was spoken within the Russian River Valley, simply north of San Francisco, California. This reference grammar is predicated at the speech of Laura Fish Somersal, its final fluent speaker, who died in 1990, and represents the main vast info and grammatical examine ever performed in this language. The grammar makes a speciality of morphosyntax, rather nominal, verbal, and clausal buildings and clause combining styles, from a functional/typological viewpoint.
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Additional resources for A Reference Grammar of Wappo (University of California Publications in Linguistics)
He pol'eʔ - i k'en - iš - khiʔ DEM boy - NOM tall - INCH - STAT ‘this boy got tall’ (211) (70) a. om - i šoy'i:ya: - khiʔ everywhere - NOM ‘it’s hot’ (211) b. om - i hot šoy' - - STAT iš - khiʔ everywhere - NOM hot - INCH - STAT ‘it got hot’ (211) (71) a. 1 Tense and Aspect b. cephi loʔ - eš 45 - khiʔ 3SG:NOM damp - INCH - STAT ‘it got damp’ (212) However, while -iš- before -khiʔ always signals inchoative meaning, there are rare cases in which it is quite possible to express inchoativeness without this suffix.
For further discussion of 3CO, including cross-linguistic comparisons, see Li and Thompson (1993). 9 Pronouns (93) cephi may' - piyaʔ holowik'a naw - taʔ 3SG:NOM REFL - near snake see - PST ‘s/he saw a snake near him/herself’ (53) Here are further examples of 3CO with non-body-part genitives: (94) nom - khiʔ khon' polaʔ - i me - meʔ on - k'a live - STAT EVID boy - NOM 3CO - GEN people - COM ‘there lived, they say, a boyi with hisi people’ (Text E, 295) (95) ce k'ew - i me - meʔ kapote č'a - welis - taʔ DEM man - NOM 3CO - GEN coat ‘the mani took off hisi coat’ (78) (96) cel' neteʔ - met'a - i me DIR - take:off - PST ek'a:pi - thu then mole - woman - NOM 3CO daughter - DAT cew - is - taʔ ...
The inalienable possession construction is found with body parts, kin terms (except for ek'a ‘son’, and ok'o:to ‘children’ which inexplicably occur with either the suffixed or unsuffixed form), words for ‘friend’, and some (apparently important) material possessions, such as čhuya ‘house’: (39) c'ic'a khap - keʔte - khiʔ i bird wing - NOM broken - STAT ‘the bird’s wing is broken’ (65) (40) te pheʔ - i tuč'a - khiʔ 3SG foot - NOM big - STAT ‘his/her foot is big’ (j41) (41) i yawe ah huhkal - taʔ 1SG name 1SG:NOM remember - PST ‘I remembered my name’ (74) (42) cephi me č'a - kek'i - ya:miʔ ew 3SG:NOM 3SG husband DIR - leave - FUT ‘she’s going to leave her husband’ (705) BUT: (43) te - meʔ ok'o:t - i natuy' - siʔ 3SG - GEN children - NOM believe - DUR ‘his/her children believe (it)’ (58) Finally, here is a minimal pair illustrating the difference in interpretation between an alienably and an inalienably possessed noun: 16 The Noun Phrase (44) a.